Władysław Anders

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Birth Date:
11.08.1892
Death date:
12.05.1970
Extra names:
Władysław Anders, Vladislavs Anderss, Władysław Anders Владислав Андерс, Wladyslaw, Wladislaw
Categories:
General, Member of student's corporation, Related to Latvia, Victim of repression (genocide) of the Soviet regime, WWI participant, WWII participant
Nationality:
 pole
Cemetery:
Polish Cemetery at Monte Cassino

Władysław Anders was a General in the Polish Army and later in life a politician with the Polish government-in-exile in London.

Anders was born on 11 August 1892 to his father Albert Anders (from Latvia, Vidzeme region) and his mother Elizabeth, born Tauchert, in the village of Krośniewice–Błonie, near Kutno which at that time was part of the Russian Empire (Partitions of Poland).

He was baptized as a member of the Protestant Evangelical-Augsburg Church in Poland; but while being kept in Soviet prisons he made a promise that if he survived and regained strength in his legs (he was seriously injured) he would convert to Roman Catholicism. He did survive, and did indeed convert.

While an undergraduate at Riga Technical University Anders became a member of the Polish student fraternity Arkonia. As a young officer, he served Tsar Nicholas II in the 1st Krechowiecki Lancer's Regiment during World War I, later joining the Polish Army and again serving in cavalry as a commanding officer in 15th Poznań Uhlans Regiment.

Colonel Anders was chief of staff of the government forces during Piłsudski's May Coup of 1926 and was bitterly opposed to President Wojciechowski's decision to surrender to the rebels. Unlike the government's top commander Tadeusz Rozwadowski, he avoided persecution by the Sanation regime that assumed power after the coup.

Anders was in command of a cavalry brigade at the time of the outbreak of World War II. The Polish forces were no match for the larger and better equipped German Wehrmacht with their massive Blitzkrieg tactics and were forced to retreat to the east. During the fighting and retreat Anders was wounded a number of times. He was later taken prisoner by Soviet forces and was jailed, initially in Lviv (then Lwów) and later in Lubyanka prison in Moscow. During his imprisonment Anders was tortured.

Shortly after the attack on the Soviet Union by Germany on 22 June 1941, Anders was released by the Soviets with the aim of forming a Polish Army to fight alongside the Red Army.

Continued friction with the Soviets over political issues as well as shortages of weapons, food and clothing, led to the eventual exodus of Anders' men – known as the Anders Army – together with a sizeable contingent of Polish civilians via the Persian Corridor into Iran, Iraq and Palestine.

Here, Anders formed and led the 2nd Polish Corps, fighting alongside the Western Allies, while agitating for the release of Polish nationals still in the Soviet Union.

Anders was the commander of the 2nd Polish Corps in Italy 1943–1946, capturing Monte Cassino in the Battle of Monte Cassino.

After the war the Soviet-installed communist government in Poland in 1946 deprived him of Polish citizenship and of his military rank. Anders had, however, always been unwilling to return to a Soviet-dominated Poland where he probably would have been jailed and possibly executed, and remained in exile in Britain. He was prominent in the Polish Government in Exile in London and inspector-general of the Polish forces-in-exile.

After the war Anders wrote a book covering his thoughts and experiences. An Army in Exile was published originally by MacMillan & Co., London, in 1949. The book has been recently re-issued under the same title.

In 1948 he married the actress Irena Anders.

He died in London on 12 May 1970, where his body lay in state at the church of Andrzej Bobola, where many of his former soldiers and families came to pay their last respects. He was buried, in accordance with his wishes, amongst his fallen soldiers from the 2nd Polish Corps at the Polish War Cemetery at Monte Cassino in Italy.

Generał Władysław Anders Funeral - Monte Cassino, 23rd May 1970

After the collapse of Communist Poland in 1989, his citizenship and military rank were posthumously reinstated.

25th Anniversary of the Battle of Monte Cassino

Medals

 

Poland

  • Wound Decoration, 8 times
  • Order of the White Eagle (posthumously) November 11, 1995 by Lech Walesa
  • Virtuti Militari Commander's Cross, Officer's Cross, Golden Cross IV Class and Silver Cross V Class
  • Polonia Restituta Commander's Cross and Officer's Cross
  • Cross of Valour (Krzyż Walecznych) 4 times (3 times for the Polish-Soviet War and once for the Polish Defensive War of 1939)
  • Cross of Independence
  • Golden Cross of Merit with Swords, 4 times
  • Medal Wojska Military Medal four times
  • Commemorative Medal for War of 1919-1921
  • Medal 10-lecia Odzyskania Niepodległości
  • Medal 3 Maja
  • Medal za Długoletnią Służbę (Long Service Medal)
  • Krzyż Armii Krajowej (Cross of the Home Army)
  • Krzyż Monte Cassino (Monte Cassino Commemorative Cross)

Foreign

Czechoslovakia

  • Order of the White Lion

France

  • Légion d'honneur, Commandeur
  • Croix de guerre with Palm
  • Medaille Interallie

Italy

  • Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (Ordine dei Santi Maurizio e Lazzaro) 1st Class
  • Croce di Guerra al Valore Militare

Knights of Malta

  • Croce al Merito del Sovrano Militare Ordine di Malta

Persia

  • Order of Homayoun 1st Class

Russia (Imperial Russia)

  • Order of St. George IV class (1915)
  • Order of St. Vladimir with Swords, IV class (1915)
  • Order of St. Anna with Swords 2nd, 3rd (1918) and 4th class
  • Order of Saint Stanislas with Swords 2nd and 3rd classes (1918)

United Kingdom

  • Order of the Bath, Companion
  • Italy Star
  • Defence Medal

United States of America

  • Legion of Merit, Commander
  • Order of Lafayette

Yugoslavia (Royal)

  • Commander of the Order of St. Sava

Source: wikipedia.org, news.lv, lnb.lv

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        Relations

        Relation nameRelation typeBirth DateDeath dateDescription
        1Irena AndersIrena AndersWife12.05.192029.11.2010
        2Władysław SikorskiWładysław SikorskiCoworker20.05.188104.07.1943
        3Joseph StalinJoseph StalinFamiliar, Opponent18.12.187805.03.1953
        4Józef LipskiJózef LipskiEmployee05.06.189401.11.1958
        5Ioakim VacetisIoakim VacetisOpponent23.11.187328.07.1938
        6Witold UklańskiWitold UklańskiSoldier13.03.189303.05.1954
        7
        Kazimierz MaterskiSoldier23.09.190603.02.1971
        8Aleksander ŻabczyńskiAleksander ŻabczyńskiSoldier24.07.190031.05.1958
        9
        Soldier
        10
        Soldier
        11
        Soldier
        12Antoni Komendo-BorowskiAntoni Komendo-BorowskiSoldier06.06.191212.05.1984
        13Klemens RudnickiKlemens RudnickiSoldier28.03.189712.06.1992
        14Marian CzuchnowskiMarian CzuchnowskiSoldier22.05.190909.01.1991
        15Menachem BeginMenachem BeginSoldier, Comrade16.08.191309.03.1982
        16Antoni IglewskiAntoni IglewskiSoldier01.01.189927.01.1979
        17Stefan FelsztyńskiStefan FelsztyńskiSoldier03.05.188830.06.1966
        18Wiesław WolwowiczWiesław WolwowiczSoldier06.04.192215.01.2014
        19Gustaw Herling-GrudzińskiGustaw Herling-GrudzińskiSoldier20.05.191904.07.2000
        20Józef CichyJózef CichySoldier00.00.192008.06.2015
        21Kazimierz ŚliwaKazimierz ŚliwaSoldier22.11.192523.10.2015
        22Zbigniew KiedaczZbigniew KiedaczSoldier11.09.191123.10.1944
        23Stefan SienickiStefan SienickiSoldier04.12.189700.00.1970
        24Wiktor PyćWiktor PyćSoldier10.04.191619.07.2016
        25
        Zdzisław Kazimierz KwiecińskiSoldier00.00.192231.01.2017
        26Nikodem SulikNikodem SulikSoldier15.08.189314.01.1954
        27Stanisław KopańskiStanisław KopańskiSoldier19.05.189523.03.1976
        28Bolesław Bronisław DuchBolesław Bronisław DuchSoldier15.11.189609.10.1980
        29Józef ZającJózef ZającSoldier14.03.189112.12.1963
        30Stanisław DębskiStanisław DębskiSoldier00.00.189900.00.1983
        31
        Stanisław SkowrońskiSoldier13.11.191920.04.2016
        32Henryk SkrzypińskiHenryk SkrzypińskiSoldier04.11.192526.04.2016
        33
        Kazimir Tomash HubertComrade00.00.192101.01.2006
        34Witold PileckiWitold PileckiComrade13.05.190125.05.1948
        35
        Comrade
        36Ryszard KaczorowskiRyszard KaczorowskiComrade26.11.191910.04.2010

        08.08.1919 | Operation Minsk

        Operation Minsk refers to the Polish offensive and capture of Minsk from the Soviet Russia in early August 1919.

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        01.09.1939 | Invasion of Poland

        The Invasion of Poland, also known as the September Campaign or 1939 Defensive War (Polish: Kampania wrześniowa or Wojna obronna 1939 roku) in Poland and the Poland Campaign (German: Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiß (Case White) in Germany, was an invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II in Europe. The German invasion began on 1 September 1939, one week after the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, while the Soviet invasion commenced on 17 September following the Molotov-Tōgō agreement which terminated the Russian and Japanese hostilities (Nomonhan incident) in the east on 16 September. The campaign ended on 6 October with Germany and the Soviet Union dividing and annexing the whole of Poland.

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        01.10.1939 | 1.10.1939 sabiedrotie- Vācija un PSRS notur kopīgas militārās parādes iekarotās Polijas pilsētās Ļvovā, Grodņā, Pinskā

        Viena no pirmajām militārajām parādēm tika noturēta 1939.g. 22. septembrī abiem iekarotājiem satiekoties Brestā. Vēlāk, pēc Polijas pilnīgas iekarošanas abi sabiedrotie- PSRS un Vācija šo draudzību apliecinošo tradīciju praktizēja plašāk.

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        03.12.1941 | General Anders meets Stalin

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        18.04.1942 | Poļu karaspēka ("Andersa Armijas") pārvietošana no PSRS uz Irānu

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        12.09.1942 | Z rozkazu Naczelnego Wodza Polskich Sił Zbrojnych gen. Władysława Sikorskiego została utworzona Armia Polska na Wschodzie

        Armia Polska na Wschodzie została utworzona na podstawie rozkazu Naczelnego Wodza PSZ, gen. broni Władysława Sikorskiego z 12 września 1942, w Iraku, Iranie i Palestynie z połączenia Wojska Polskiego na Środkowym Wschodzie i Polskich Sił Zbrojnych w ZSRR.

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        12.11.1942 | Otrais Pasaules karš. Sabiedroto spēki sāk cīņas par Tobruku Ziemeļāfrikā. Tās beidzas ar Sabiedroto uzvaru

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        26.04.1943 | Stalin breaks off relations with Polish Government in exile after Poles demand answers over Katyn

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        15.03.1944 | Kampania włoska: rozpoczęła się trzecia bitwa o Monte Cassino.

        15 marca (operacja „Dickens”) rozpoczęło się trzecie, najbardziej krwawe z dotychczasowych, natarcie tymi samymi siłami, poprzedzone bombardowaniem: w ciągu trzech i pół godziny 575 ciężkich i średnich bombowców oraz 200 myśliwców bombardujących zrzuciło na miasto i okolice blisko 1100 ton bomb, a artyleria wystrzeliła ponad 10 000 pocisków. Po tym przygotowaniu ogniowym, w trakcie którego Cassino zostało zrównane z ziemią, na pozycje niemieckie uderzyły ponownie trzy dywizje: 4. hinduska (trzy brygady piechoty), 2. nowozelandzka (również trzy brygady) i 78. brytyjska (dwie brygady piechoty i brygada pancerna).

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        18.05.1944 | Virs Montekasino tiek pacelts poļu karogs. Tiek atvērts Sabiedroto ceļš uz Romu

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        18.07.1944 | II Korpus Polski pod dowództwem gen. Władysława Andersa zdobył włoską Ankonę

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        21.04.1945 | ASV un poļu armija ieņem Boloņu

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        26.09.1946 | Tymczasowy Rząd Jedności Narodowej Edwarda Osóbki-Morawskiego z dniem 6 września pozbawił obywatelstwa polskiego gen. Władysława Andersa i 75 oficerów Polskich Sił Zbrojnych na Zachodzie

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        21.09.1964 | Malta ieguva neatkarību no Lielbritānijas

        Maltas vēsture ir ļoti sena. Vecākās apmetnes tiek datētas ar vismaz 5200.g.p.m.ē.

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