Kazakh genocide: Soviets made artificial deficit of food. 1,5-2 million deaths
According to Marxist theory, nomadic societies were not corresponding to the Soviet social ideal. Besides social issues, which were mainly solved by "red terror"already in 1917-1921, USSR Communist party revived forced russification programme of USSR and expected to solve food shortage problems by "industrialisation" of Kazakh steppes.
There was a discussion about the relationship between nomadic pastoral mode of production and the generic structure of nomadic societies. According to the Bolsheviks, the transition to a settled way of life could be achieved in the following ways:
- by destroying the economic base of the nomads,
- through the destruction of the generic (national) structure of society,
or the simultaneous destruction of one or the other.
According to the Soviet census of 1926, about 70% of the Kazakh population (approximately three million people) engaged in nomadic or semi-economy.
During the fifteenth Conference of the Communist Party in 1928, F.Goloschekin introduced repressive campaign against large "bais" (landowners) and «semi-feudal» as the first stage of weakening tribal authorities themselves and tribes themselves. The solution was expected by using the same methods already applied to Tatar & Bashkir territories near Volga river in 1921,- by destroying historical chain of food supply for Kazakh nomads (organising famine) and after using centuries old Russian method of "national management"- deportation of local people to other areas and replacing with mixed population from other places of Soviet Empire
Almost half of nomadic herdsmen died during the famine, hundreds of thousands illegaly migrated (borders in the these areas were closed) to the neighboring Soviet republics and other countries.
Nearly a million Kazakhs, most of them nomads, were settled in animal collective farms, about two hundred thousand — in the collective technical and crops, and the rest were in the industrial sector.
After regaining independence, 31. May in Kazakhstan is famine victims rememberance day.
(Source: Isabelle Ogayon, Senior Researcher at National Center for Scientific Research, etc.)
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